Impermanent NixOS: on a VM + tmpfs root + flakes + LUKS


Ever since reading Graham Christensen's blog post, Erase your darlings, I've been intrigued by the idea of opt-in state persistence. The concept has become known as impermanence1 2, but I like to think of it as:

I say we take off and nuke the entire site from orbit. It’s the only way to be sure.

Check out the video I made introducing this blog post. It might be a good starting point to add some context of what you're getting yourself into.

So what is impermanence? To quote the nix-community impermanence readme:

Lets you choose what files and directories you want to keep between reboots - the rest are thrown away.

Why would you want this?

  • It keeps your system clean by default.
  • It forces you to declare settings you want to keep.
  • It lets you experiment with new software without cluttering up your system.

The other day I couldn't log in to the graphical environment on my system. I had to switch to a TTY to find out why using journalctl:

systemd-xdg-autostart-generator[2375]: Exec binary 'teams' does not exist: No such file or directory
systemd-xdg-autostart-generator[2375]: /home/will/.config/autostart/teams.desktop: not generating unit, error parsing Exec= line: No such file or directory

A ~/.config/autostart/teams.desktop was left over after uninstalling teams3. Crap like this trying to bootstrap autostart on its own is exactly the sort of thing I want to nuke from orbit. So I'm finally going to give impermanence a try.

The plan

  • Create a custom NixOS live ISO
  • Fire up the live ISO in a VM
  • assume UEFI system (no instructions for legacy BIOS)
  • tmpfs as root
  • Partition with optimal alignment
  • Optional LUKS encryption on root
  • EXT4 for persistence 4
  • With swap 5 optionally encrypted with random key
  • An opinionated install using nix flakes 6

This post is going to be a walk-through of how to try out impermanence with NixOS in a VM. I have also tested this on a Framework laptop with a NVMe drive. I have run through the steps many times in a VM to make sure they work and are easy to copy, paste, and run.


I encourage reviewing the code before running.

I imagine the audience for this post is people who are already familiar with NixOS, but I'll try to keep in mind those crazy enough to try NixOS, flakes, and impermanence for the first time.

I personally try this sort of thing in a VM first. For example, when migrating to NixOS. And again, when I rewrote my config for nix flakes. This time, as I'm migrating to impermanence, I want to document the process better. Hopefully, this will make it easier for others to try it out too.

I'm largely using as a guide to use tmpfs (i.e. RAM) as root. I find the simplicity of its setup appealing. However, power outages create a risk of data loss. I use a UPS with my system, and want to give this a try before trying the ZFS / Btrfs snapshot approach.

Creating a custom NixOS live ISO

It's nice to be able to copy and paste between the host and the VM, and the following code blocks are written to make them easy to paste and run.

Fortunately, it's easy to create a custom live CD/ISO:

If that's something you rather not mess with, then skip this section.


{ modulesPath, pkgs, ... }:
  imports = [

  # Enables copy / paste when running in a KVM with spice.
  services.spice-vdagentd.enable = true;

  # Use faster squashfs compression
  isoImage.squashfsCompression = "gzip -Xcompression-level 1";


ChangingsquashfsCompression is not required, but it speeds up the build dramatically for a modest trade-off in space.

Then build the iso.nix with:

nix-build '<nixpkgs/nixos>' \
  -A \
  -I nixos-config=iso.nix

The resulting ISO will be in ./result/iso/.


If you don't have Nix installed, I recommend using the Determinate Systems Nix installer (reasons given on the website):

In iso.nix I use the graphical installer because X11 is needed for spice to work. Check out the imported file to get a sense of how the live CD is configured.

I also made a flake based example on GitHub which, in addition to the above, also brings in home-manager to add some nice-to-haves such as:

  • ZSH configured with completion and auto suggestions

  • Alacritty with starship prompt

  • fzf with ZSH integration (Ctrl + R etc.)

  • neovim with a minimal config for my custom keybindings made for Colemak-DH. I'm actually an Emacs user (with evil-mode), but that's overkill for this situation.

  • xclip for clipboard support in neovim, and other packages I could have installed on the fly with nix-env.

Feel free to fork it and modify it to your liking.

KVM management tool

I'm using virt-manager as the front-end for libvirt. If you're on NixOS, see: for install instructions. I also experimented with, but ran into problems.

These days, most computers use UEFI instead of BIOS for the firmware. I'm going to assume no one needs BIOS to simplify these instructions.

For me, virt-manager uses BIOS by default, to change this:

  1. Open virt-manager View set x86 Firmware to UEFI Close

If you don't want to change the default, you can change it at VM creation time after selecting the disk size:

  1. Check the Customize configuration before install Finish.

  2. In the Overview section, change the Firmware from BIOS to UEFI Apply

Fire up the VM

Using the ISO from the section about custom ISOs, or an official one, sudo mv it into /var/lib/libvirt/images/ which is the default directory it looks for images. I always end up having permission issues otherwise.

  1. Open virt-manager Select File New virtual machine Forward.

  2. Choose ISO Forward (it should auto-detect that it's NixOS).

  3. Choose Memory and CPU amount (I personally use 25% - 50% of what I have available) Forward.

  4. Choose available disk size Forward.

  5. Begin Installation

Once booted into the ISO, the first thing I do is right-click on the desktop and Configure Display Settings to change to a higher resolution.


For me, lsblk shows a disk named vda. Replace vda with your disk below.

Set up a variable for the disk which will be used in the following commands:

export DISK=/dev/vda


I'm going to use 1MiB (sector 2048) as the starting sector for optimal alignment, and that will probably work for you too. However, if you run into alignment issues, then see the "Finding optimal alignment" section at the end of the blog post.

sudo parted $DISK --script \
  unit MiB \
  mklabel gpt \
  mkpart ESP fat32 1 513 \
  set 1 boot on \
  mkpart swap linux-swap 513 8705 \
  mkpart nix 8705 100% \

Here are the annotated parted commands from above:

# default units for `print` and `mkpart` commands
unit MiB
# initialize the partition table
mklabel gpt
# Make boot partition 512 MiB.
# Note that 1MiB is where my partition needs to start for optimal alignment.
mkpart ESP fat32 1 513
# mark the partition is bootable
set 1 boot on
# Make swap partition 8705 = 513 + 8192 (note 8192MiB = 8GiB)
mkpart swap linux-swap 513 8705
# Make root partition the rest of the drive
mkpart nix 8705 100%
# see the results

The lsblk command should now show the partitions on the disk:

$ lsblk
loop0    7:0    0  3.1G  1 loop /nix/.ro-store
sr0     11:0    1  3.2G  0 rom  /iso
vda    253:0    0   40G  0 disk
├─vda1 253:1    0  512M  0 part
├─vda2 253:2    0    8G  0 part
└─vda3 253:3    0 31.5G  0 part

Check alignment:

for i in {1..3}; do sudo parted $DISK -- align-check optimal $i; done


The following will set variables PART1, PART2, and PART3 to the partition names. I realized when trying this out on a laptop with a NVMe drive that simply using ${DISK}1 wouldn't work when the disk ends with a number such as nvme0n1, the partitions end up looking like nvme0n1p1 etc.

for i in {1..3};\
  do export "PART$i"=$(lsblk -lp | grep part | grep ${DISK} | awk -v line=$i 'NR==line{print $1}');\
echo $PART1; echo $PART2; echo $PART3

The output should look similar to:


Optionally, LUKS encrypt the root partition:

sudo cryptsetup luksFormat $PART3

Open the encrypted partition and change the variable to point to the decrypted partition:

sudo cryptsetup luksOpen $PART3 crypted && \
  export PART3=/dev/mapper/crypted

Now format the partitions:

sudo mkfs.fat -F 32 -n boot ${PART1} && \
  sudo mkswap -L swap ${PART2} && \
  sudo mkfs.ext4 -L nixos ${PART3}

I always ignore the warning:

lowercase labels might not work properly on some systems

Visually verify the partitions and file systems using:

sudo parted $DISK -- unit MiB print

Here's what I get with a 40GiB virtual disk:

Model: Virtio Block Device (virtblk)
Disk /dev/vda: 40960MiB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: gpt
Disk Flags:

Number  Start    End       Size      File system     Name  Flags
 1      1.00MiB  513MiB    512MiB    fat32           ESP   boot, esp
 2      513MiB   8705MiB   8192MiB   linux-swap(v1)  swap  swap
 3      8705MiB  40959MiB  32254MiB  ext4            nix


I'm going to base the following on the excellent guide.

cat << 'EOF' > ~/
#!/usr/bin/env bash

set -e

# Mount your root file system as tmpfs
mount -v -t tmpfs none /mnt

# Create mount directories
mkdir -v -p /mnt/{boot,nix,etc/nixos,var/log}

# Mount /boot and /nix
mount -v $PART1 /mnt/boot -o umask=0077
mount -v $PART3 /mnt/nix

# Create persistent directories
mkdir -v -p /mnt/nix/persist/{etc/nixos,var/log}

# Bind mount the persistent configuration / logs
mount -v -o bind /mnt/nix/persist/etc/nixos /mnt/etc/nixos
mount -v -o bind /mnt/nix/persist/var/log /mnt/var/log

# Make config directory temporarily easier to work with
chmod -v 777 /mnt/etc/nixos

chmod u+x ~/ && sudo -E ~/

Configure hardware

Enable swap now. Otherwise, it won't get automatically configured in your hardware-configuration.nix:

sudo swapon $PART2

Generate the initial configuration.nix and hardware-configuration.nix:

nixos-generate-config --root /mnt && cd /mnt/etc/nixos

If you see the following, just ignore it:

ERROR: Not a Btrfs filesystem: Invalid argument

Per Elis's blog post, we need to set some options on the tmpfs root in the hardware-configuration.nix:

The most important bit is the mode, otherwise certain software (such as openssh) won't be happy with the permissions of the file system.

The size is something you can adjust depending on how much garbage you are willing to store in ram until you run out of space on your root...

  fileSystems."/" =
    { device = "none";
      fsType = "tmpfs";
+     options = [ "defaults" "size=25%" "mode=755" ];

The following will add the options to the tmpfs root and format the two nix files using nixpkgs-fmt:

sed -i '/fsType = "tmpfs";/a options = [ "defaults" "size=25%" "mode=755" ];' \
  ./hardware-configuration.nix && \
  nix-shell -p nixpkgs-fmt --run 'nixpkgs-fmt .'

Increase security of the boot mount

You may have noticed when I mounted boot I used umask=0077. This was to avoid the following warning:

⚠️ Mount point '/boot' which backs the random seed file is world accessible, which is a security hole! ⚠️
⚠️ Random seed file '/boot/loader/.#bootctlrandom-seedc878009c19a876dc' is world accessible, which is a security hole! ⚠️

There's a nixpkgs issue about it. The generated hardware-configuration.nix does not currently pick up these permission options. So let's fix that again using sed.

sed -i '/fsType = "vfat"/a options = [ "umask=0077" ];' \
  ./hardware-configuration.nix && \
  nix-shell -p nixpkgs-fmt --run 'nixpkgs-fmt .'

Optional encrypted swap

If you're using LUKS on the root partition, then you might want to encrypt swap. However, the by-uuid generated for the swapDevice in the hardware-configuration needs to change to the by-partuuid because when using the randomEncryption.enable = true the by-uuid changes every boot.

To keep with the theme of the post, I threw together a script to do the work for you:

cat << 'EOF' > ~/
#!/usr/bin/env bash

set -e

if [[ -z $PART2 ]]; then
  echo "PART2 is undefined or empty"
  exit 1


main() {
  swapPart=$(echo $PART2 | awk -F'/' '{print $NF}')
  swapDiskUUID=$(ls -l /dev/disk/by-uuid | grep $swapPart | awk '{print $9}')
  swapPartUUID=$(ls -l /dev/disk/by-partuuid | grep $swapPart | awk '{print $9}')

  echo "swapDiskUUID: $swapDiskUUID"
  echo "swapPartUUID: $swapPartUUID"

  sed -i "s|by-uuid/$swapDiskUUID|by-partuuid/$swapPartUUID|g" $hwConfig
  sed -i "/$swapPartUUID/s/\";/\";\n/" $hwConfig
  sed -i "/$swapPartUUID\"/ a\\randomEncryption.enable = true;" $hwConfig

  nix-shell -p nixpkgs-fmt --run "nixpkgs-fmt $hwConfig"

cp $hwConfig $backupHwConfig
trap 'cp $backupHwConfig $hwConfig' ERR
chmod u+x ~/ && ~/

Configure with flakes

If you're not familiar with nix flakes, I recommend reading at least the first link below:

We're getting to the rest of the owl section that seems inevitable with configuring NixOS. To help out, I made an example starter config that I configured using Misterio77/nix-starter-configs minimal template. So if you're starting out with flakes, then I recommend checking out both. I'll talk about this more in the last section of the blog post.

Here's how to use my starter config:

git clone && \
  mv hardware-configuration.nix ./ex-nixos-starter-config && \
  cd ex-nixos-starter-config && \
  git add .


New files in a git repo must be staged at least for flake related commands to be aware of them. This is why git add . is needed so that the hardware-configuration.nix is staged.

Otherwise, an error like the following will happen:

error: getting status of '/mnt/nix/store/21zpkqcn55a73x9y8yy4lrrd7ja3mjvc-source/nixos/hardware-configuration.nix': No such file or directory


Before installing, I recommend looking over the generated /mnt/etc/nixos/configuration.nix. It's not going to be used in the installation, so copy any settings you want into the /mnt/etc/nixos/ex-nixos-starter-config/configuration.nix file.

If you like, rename blitzar to whatever hostname you like. I usually name my hosts after astronomical bodies or concepts for fun.

From the /mnt/etc/nixos/ex-nixos-starter-config directory run:

NIX_CONFIG="experimental-features = nix-command flakes" \
  sudo nixos-install --flake .#blitzar --no-root-passwd

Change /mnt/etc/nixos permissions back and reboot:

sudo chmod -v 755 /mnt/etc/nixos && \


Since we're using Nix flakes, there's no requirement for the repo to be under /etc/nixos. Feel free to change it after rebooting, but make sure you persist the directory you decide to store it!

If you're using my example starter config, then see its readme for credentials and how to change them.

Rest of the owl

One important difference I made when configuring from the minimal Misterio77/nix-starter-configs template is I switched home manager to a module within a NixOS system configuration.

This means all the home.nix configuration is applied when nixos-install is run (above) or in the more normal case when using nixos-rebuild. I rather not have to use the home-manager standalone CLI tool. I suppose one might have a use-case where they want to configure their home independently of their system. I'm not sure what the best approach is to avoid having to run the tool on every boot.

Finding what to persist

Hi, it's me from the future. I've been using this setup for a couple of weeks. One thing that's helpful is to be able to find differences between the /nix/persist and / directories. I use rsync with --dry-run to do this:

sudo rsync -amvxx \
  --dry-run \
  --no-links \
  --exclude '/tmp/*' \
  --exclude '/root/*' \
  / /nix/persist/ \
  | rg -v '^skipping|/$'

Here is some documentation on the options used:

     --no-OPTION             turn off an implied OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
 -a, --archive               archive mode; equals -rlptgoD (no -H,-A,-X)
 -c, --checksum              skip based on checksum, not mod-time & size
 -m, --prune-empty-dirs      prune empty directory chains from file-list
 -n, --dry-run               perform a trial run with no changes made
 -v, --verbose               increase verbosity
 -x, --one-file-system       don't cross filesystem boundaries

    If this option is repeated, rsync omits all mount-point directories from the
    copy. Otherwise, it includes an empty directory at each mount-point it
    encounters (using the attributes of the mounted directory because those of
    the underlying mount-point directory are inaccessible).

However, note I'm not using -c, --checksum because it's slower and seems to be overkill.

I exclude /tmp and /root because I don't want to persist those directories.

I use rg (ripgrep) to filter out results. Such as lines starting with skipping:

skipping non-regular file "home/will/.local/state/home-manager/gcroots/current-home"
skipping non-regular file "home/will/.local/state/nix/profiles/home-manager"

or ending with /:


You can also reverse the source / destination to find orphaned files in the /nix/persist directory.


Of course, the real "rest of the owl" is actually configuring your system, and there's no way around reading documentation. Here are a few links to get you started:

The links above have a lot of jumping off points to other resources. Let me know if I left anything out.

The nix-community impermanence readme is a must-read unless you decided to not use:

# flake.nix
  inputs = {
    # ...
    impermanence.url = "github:nix-community/impermanence";
  # ...

Finding optimal alignment

When using parted, a simple way around alignment issues is to use percentages or MB / GB units. When this is done, parted effectively searches a calculated distance around the given location to find optimal alignment. However, I like to have my partitions in nice clean power of 2 IEC unit sizes (e.g. MiB) because that's what most tools default to (e.g. gparted, cfdisk, lsblk, df -h etc.). The problem is when using IEC units or exact sectors, parted will not search for optimal alignment. It basically assumes you know what you're doing. 7 8 9

What we need to find is the starting sector of the first partition. A simple trick to do this with parted is to:

sudo parted $DISK --script \
  mklabel gpt \
  mkpart primary 0% 100% \
  unit MiB print \
  rm 1

This will print out something like the following. Note the Start.

Model: Virtio Block Device (virtblk)
Disk /dev/vda: 40960MiB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: gpt
Disk Flags:

Number  Start    End       Size      File system  Name     Flags
 1      1.00MiB  40959MiB  40958MiB               primary

Now wipe the device to start over:

sudo wipefs -a $DISK

Head back to the "Partitioning" section and adjust the values for your Start.

Harmless error on shutdown

When shutting down or rebooting, you might see a flash of red in the logs:

[FAILED] Failed unmounting /nix.

Seems to be related to this issue. Fortunately, it seems to be harmless and doesn't cause any delay.

If you want to see the error more clearly, try sudo halt.


Why this breaks the graphical environment I still don't know. Perhaps I need to disable xdg.autostart.enable which defaults to true?


I spent way too much time considering whether I wanted to switch away from EXT4. After considering the features and performance of file systems such as:

  • Btrfs
  • ZFS
  • f2fs
  • XFS
  • bcachefs

I decided to stick with EXT4 for my workstation. Though I plan to revisit this topic again in the future.


This is always a controversial topic. And I can't blame either position because I have yet to find any argument with experiments to back up claims. Here's an argument in favor of swap which I keep running across. It should be pretty straight forward to remove swap from the script snippets above.


This blog post is already taking too long. Making it "opinionated" makes it easier to write.